Kidney Cancer

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Introduction

Kidney cancer is a cancer which starts in the kidneys. The cancer starts when the cells in the body begin to grow out of control. The cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer and spread to other areas of the body. Get in touch with us to get low cost kidney cancer treatment in India from the best surgeon for kidney cancer in India.

About Kidneys

The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are attached to the upper back wall of the abdomen. One kidney is just to the left and the other to the right of the backbone. The lower rib cage protects the kidneys. Small glands called adrenal glands sit above each of the kidneys and they are surrounded by a fat and thin, fibrous layer known as Gerota’s fascia.

The kidney’s main function is to filter the blood coming in from the renal arteries to remove excess salt, water and waste products. The kidney’s main job is to filter the blood coming in from the renal arteries for removing the excess salt, water and waste products which become urine. It leaves the kidneys through the long slender tubes called ureters that are connected to the bladder. The place where the ureter meets the kidney is called as the renal pelvis. The urine is then stored in the bladder until you urinate or pee.

The kidneys also have other jobs such as help control the blood pressure by making a hormone called rennin and also help ensure the body has enough red blood cells by making a hormone called erythropoietin. This hormone tells the bone marrow to make more red blood cells. Our kidneys are vital, but we actually need less than one complete kidney to function. Some people do not have any working kidneys at all and survive with dialysis, a medical procedure that uses a specially designed machine which filters the blood much like a real kidney would.

Types of Kidney Cancer


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The type of kidney cancer tells you what type of cell it started in and knowing this will help your doctor to decide which treatment you need. Send us your query to get the Cheapest Renal Cancer Treatment in India on our website.

Renal Cell Cancer

Also called as renal cell adenocarcinoma and occasionally hypernephroma, this is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. Over 8 in every 10 kidney cancers diagnosed in the UK are of this type. The cancerous cells start in the lining of the tubules which is the smallest tubes inside the nephrons that help filter the blood and make urine.

Since the kidneys are made up of different types of cells, the type of cancer you have depend on the type of cell where the cancer starts. The three main types of renal cell cancer are:

  • Clear cell- around 75 out of 100 renal cell cancers
  • Papillary- around 10 in 100 renal cell cancers
  • Chromophobe- around 5 in 100 renal cell cancers

Rare types of renal cell cancer include carcinoma of the collecting ducts and renal medually carcinoma. In some cases, the kidney cancers can contain more than one cell type.

Sarcomatoid renal (kidney) cancer: Any type of renal cell cancer can become sarcomatoid which means the cells of the cancer look like the cells of a sarcoma- a cancer of the body’s supporting tissues, such as nerves, muscles, blood vessels, fibroid tissues and fat. If the kidney cancer is a sarcomatoid type it may have worse outlook than the non sarcomatous kidney cancers.

Transitional cell cancer of the kidney or ureter: Nearly 7 or 8 out of every 100 kidney cancers (7 to 8%) diagnosed in the UK are transitional cell cancers (TCCs) of the renal pelvis. The renal pelvis is the central area of the kidney in which the urine collects before it goes down the ureter to the bladder. The treatment for this type is similar to the treatment for bladder cancer.

Wilms’ tumor: It is a type of kidney cancer called Wilms’ tumor which can affect children. This is quite different from kidney cancer in adults.

Risk Factors for Kidney Cancers

Often kidney cancer develops in people over 40, but no one knows the exact causes of this disease. Doctors can seldom explain why one person develops kidney cancer while other does not. As per research, people with certain risk factors are more likely to develop kidney cancer. These risk factors include:

  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • High blood pressure
  • Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome
  • Long-term dialysis
  • Gender- males are more likely to be diagnosed with kidney cancer than females
  • Occupation, people who come in contact with certain chemicals or substances in their workplace are at higher risk of getting kidney cancer. Workers exposed to asbestos and cadmium and coke oven workers in the iron and steel industry are at risk.
  • Using certain types of medications such as over the counter drugs and prescription drugs for a long time
  • Having a family history of kidney cancer
  • Being black, as they are slightly at higher risk than the whites
  • Having lymphoma

Most people having these risk factors do not get kidney cancer. On the other hand, most people who do not get the disease have no known risk factors. If you think you may be at risk then discuss this concern with your doctor who will be able to suggest ways to reduce the risk and help to plan an appropriate schedule for checkups. Know the Kidney Cancer Surgery Cost in Bangalore India by contacting us on our website.

Symptoms

In most cases, people may have no early symptoms of kidney cancer. As the tumor grows larger, the symptoms may appear. The common symptoms are:

  • Pain in the side which does not go away
  • Blood in the urine that makes the urine slightly rusty to deep red
  • Weight loss that occurs for no reason
  • Feeling very tired or having a general feeling of poor health
  • Fever that lasts for weeks and isn’t caused by a cold or other infection
  • A lump or mass in the side or the abdomen
  • Loss of appetite
  • Swelling in your ankles or legs
  • Anemia

Kidney cancer which has spread to other parts of the body may cause other symptoms like bone pain, coughing up blood and shortness of breath. Often these symptoms do not mean cancer since a cyst, an infection or another problem can also cause the same symptoms. If you have any of these symptoms, then see a doctor so that any problem can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible. Contact us to know the Cost of Surgery for Renal Cancer in India and the kidney cancer success rate in India.

Diagnosis

Kidney cancer may be found due to the signs or symptoms a person have or it may be found because of the imaging tests or lab tests a person is getting for another reason. If cancer is suspected, the following tests will be needed to confirm the diagnosis:

  • Physical exam and medical history
  • Lab tests
    • Urinalysis
    • Blood chemistry tests
    • Complete blood count
  • Imaging tests
    • Computed tomography (CT) scan
    • Ultrasound
    • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan
    • Intravenous pyelogram
    • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan
    • Bone scan
    • Chest X-ray
    • Angiography
  • Fine needle aspiration and needle core biopsy
    • Fuhrman grade

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Staging

The following are the stages of kidney cancer. The higher the stage, the more advanced the cancer.

  • Stage I: A tumor 7 centimetres or smaller which is only in the kidney.
  • Stage II: A tumor larger than 7 centimetres which is only in the kidney.
  • Stage III: A tumor which is in the kidney and in at least one nearby lymph node or a tumor which is in the kidney’s main blood vessel and may also be in the nearby lymph node or a tumor which is in the fatty tissue around the kidney and may also involve the nearby lymph nodes or a tumor which extends into the major veins or perinephric tissues but not into the ipsilateral adrenal gland and not beyond Gerota’s fascia.
  • Stage IV: Cancer has spread beyond the fatty layer of tissue around the kidney and it may also be in the nearby lymph nodes or the cancer may have spread to other organs such as the bowel, pancreas or lungs or cancer has spread beyond Gerota’s fascia including the contiguous extension into the ipsilateral adrenal gland.
  • Recurrent Cancer: It is cancer which has come back or recurred post treatment. It may recur in the kidney or in another part of the body.

Treatment

People with kidney cancer want to take an active part in making decisions regarding their medical care. They want to learn about the disease and their treatment choices. Often it helps to make a list of questions before appointment. Your doctor may refer to a specialist or patient may ask for referral to specialists such as urologists and medical oncologists and radiation oncologists who treat kidney cancers. Get your appointment with the Best Kidney Cancer Surgeon in Delhi on our website.

Getting a Second Opinion

Before starting the treatment, a patient with kidney cancer might want a second opinion about the diagnosis and the treatment. Some insurance companies need a second opinion, while others may cover a second opinion if the patient or doctor requests it.

Surgery

The following are the main type of surgery for kidney cancer, which type you will have depends on how advanced your cancer is:

  • Radical nephrectomy: It removes the kidney, adrenal gland and the surrounding tissue. Often it also removes the nearby lymph nodes. This is the most common surgery for kidney cancer and can also be done through a small incision with a laparoscope.
  • Simple nephrectomy: It removes the kidney only.
  • Partial nephrectomy: It removes the cancer in the kidney along with some tissue around it. This procedure is used for patients with smaller tumors which is less than 4cm or in those patients where a radical nephrectomy may hurt the other kidney.

You can survive with just a part of one kidney as long as it is still working. Even if the surgeon removes both kidneys or if both kidneys are not working, you’ll need dialysis or a kidney transplant.

If the surgery can’t remove your kidney cancer, then your doctor will suggest another option to help destroy the tumor:

  • Radiofrequency ablation uses the high energy radio waves to cook the tumor.
  • Cryotherapy uses extreme cold to kill the tumor.
  • Arterial embolization involves inserting the material into an artery which leads to the kidney. This blocks the blood flow to the tumor. The procedure may be done to help shrink the tumor before surgery.

Biological Therapy

It uses your immune system to fight the cancer by directing, boosting or restoring your body’s natural defences. The substances for the biologic therapy are made by your body or in a lab. Examples of biological therapy for metastatic kidney cancer include interleukin-2 or interferon alpha. There are many new immunotherapies that are actively studied for kidney cancer.

Targeted Therapy

This therapy uses drugs or other substances to find and target the cancer cells with less toxicity to normal cells. Anti-angiogenic agents are one type of targeted therapy which keep the blood vessels from feeding the tumor, causing it to shrink or stop growing. Multikinase inhibitors or tyrosine kinase inhibitors are another type of targeted agent s or oral drugs which block an enzyme pathway thereby allows the cancer cells to grow. M-TOR inhibitors is a third type of targeted therapy and there are two of these drugs which are available one oral and the other IV. They will block a pathway which allows the blood vessels to help the tumor cells to grow. Each of these drugs has a unique place in the management of advanced kidney cancer.

Radiation Therapy

Often it is used to help with symptoms of kidney cancer or in patients who cannot have surgery. This treatment uses high-energy X-rays or orther types of radiation which kill the cancer cells or halt their growth. The external radiation therapy sends the radiation to the cancer from a machine outside the body.

Chemotherapy

This therapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells or stop them multiplying. It is less effective for kidney cancer than other types of cancer. Most it is used for a certain type of kidney cancer in which there spindle cells.

Follow-up Care

It is extremely important even when the cancer seems to have been removed completely or destroyed. Sometimes the disease returns since the cancer cells can remain in the body post treatment. The doctor will monitor the recovery of the person treated for kidney cancer and checks for its recurrence. The checkups will ensure that any changes in the health are noted. To learn more about the Best Hospital for Renal Cancer Treatment in Mumbai and the Top Oncologist for Renal Cancer in Mumbai, fill up our free consultation form on our website.


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